Michael F. Shaughnessy
An Interview with Stephen Reynolds: Barriers to Critical Thinking
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Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities: A Current Review of the Literature
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Students who are both gifted, and learning disabled, face challenges that most of their peers do not. Their disabilities and their strengths are often overlooked. Teachers may only focus on a student's weakness and fail to see high intelligence, or the giftedness may mask the disability and cause the child to appear average. Even when they are correctly identified, gifted and learning disabled students' social, emotional, and intellectual needs are often overlooked in the effort to remediate their disability. These students must be correctly identified as being gifted and having a learning disability in order for their needs to be adequately met. Effective programming for gifted and learning disabled students also includes social and emotional support, as well as interventions which focus on strengths, rather than weaknesses. These students will meet their potential only when their needs are appropriately met.
The separation concept is essential in convex programming. In particular, the convex sets separation. In this work the Hahn-Banach theorem is presented, with great generality, together with an important separation theorem, its consequence. Then are followed the necessary mathematical steps towards the minimax theorem, an important result in the applications of Game Theory to economics, finance and management.
Jiqing Peng, Fuxiang Cao, Zhiming Liu, Jiwu Cao, Lichao Wu, Meng Li, Xujie Dong
A correlation analysis of rocky desertification grades, plant diversity and soil factors in central Hunan of China
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Karst rocky desertification (RD) in central Hunan is a part of karst land degradation in southwest China. The change in grade of RD, or succession, has led to ecological degradation and seriously hindered socioeconomic development. RD succession is influenced by soil and vegetation. Taking central Hunan regions as a study area and using SPSS17.0 statistical software, we investigated the correlation between RD grades, plant diversity index and soil factors. Results showed that RD grades showed a significant positive correlation with soil organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The plant diversity index was positively correlated with the soil fertility index and showed a significant positive correlation with OM and available elements. Further analysis on the available elements showed that total plant diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener index H', Pielou index E and Simpson P had significant positive correlations with available magnesium (AMg). Total plant diversity indices E and P had significant positive correlations with available calcium (ACa). These conditions might have closely reflected the particular microhabitat types of RD regions. The correlation between RD grades, vegetation and soil factors suggested that the relationship of the three was co-evolutionary. To enhance RD control and treatment effectiveness, increasing the content of the ACa and AMg may be more impactful than increasing the content of OM in central Hunan.
Keywords: Central Hunan; RD grades; plant diversity; soil factors; correlation
Manuel Coelho, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira, José António Filipe
Anti-commons in the aquaculture sector in Portugal: entrepreneurship and bureaucracy
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Last decades of the 20th century have shown many problems arisen from the emergence of commons mismanagement and under-defined property rights (The "Tragedy of the Commons", cf. Hardin, 1968), affecting, especially, the design of environmental and natural resources management policy.
In the 80s, Michelman introduced another problem, this time about the excessive fragmentation of property rights. A new concept, "anticommons", was developed to put in evidence some problems one can see as the mirror image of traditional "Tragedy of the commons". These problems include the under-use of resources and may come from several sources, including bureaucracy.
Michelman introduced the concept of "anticommons" to explain "a type of property in which everyone always has rights respecting the objects in the regime, and no one, consequently, is ever privileged to use any of them except as particularly authorized by others". In this sense, "anticommons" is seen as a property regime in which multiple owners hold effective rights of exclusion in a scarce resource.
The problem stands in this: coexistence of multiple exclusion rights creates conditions for suboptimal use of the common resource. Buchanan and Yoon (2000) suggested a special view of this problem. The authors stated that the anti-commons construction offers an analytical tool for isolating a central feature of "sometimes disparate institutional structures". This means that the inefficiencies introduced by overlapping and intrusive regulatory bureaucracies may be studied with the help of this conceptualization.
When an entrepreneur seeks to invest in a project and his action is inhibited by the necessity of getting permits from several national and regional agencies, each one holding exclusion rights to the project, we may face the "Tragedy of the Anticommons". In this context, the possible emergence of a situation of anticommons can create a lot of problems in the development of local initiatives of entrepreneurship, affecting the potential of innovation and of regional development.
There are only a few empirical studies on anticommons tragedies in the real world, most of them focusing on pharmaceutics industry. The main purpose of this paper is to use this conceptualization to study the design and execution of aquaculture policy in Portugal and to introduce the possible emergence of an "anti-commons tragedy" when we approach the difficult process of approval and execution of projects of aquaculture in the Portuguese coastal areas. Our results are consistent with the suggestion of Buchanan and Yoon (2000).
Zeinab A. Rahman, Wedad A. Hassan, Amany El Garhy
The possible protective effects of oxytocin on cisplatin-induced toxicity in female rats
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The present study aimed to assess the protective effect of oxytocin against cisplatin-induced liver, renal spleen and ovarian toxicities in female Sprague Dawly rats. Cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg, i.p. single dose) caused significant increase in blood urea, serum creatinine, liver enzymes: AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase. Cisplatin caused decrease in catalase and reduced glutathione meanwhile it caused increase in the malondialdehyde content of kidney, liver and spleen homogenates. On the other hand, administration of oxytocin (800 µg/kg i.p) for six days with injection of a single dose of cisplatin onset of the day 3, ameliorated the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as indicated by the restoration of kidney, liver functions and oxidative stress biomarkers. Furthermore, oxytocin reduced the histopathological changes induced by cisplatin and caused decreased expression of caspase-3 in immune-histochemical studies of liver, kidney, spleen and ovarian tissues. In conclusion, oxytocin showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced toxicity in female rats due to its antioxidant and immunomodulatory functions.