Archive

Volume 4, Number 2 / April issue 2018
Manuel Coelho, José António Filipe, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira
About commons and tragedies reviewing a concept
Abstract

Metaphors are very important for Economics as Science, both in terms of reasoning and rationale, and in its teaching. The "Tragedy of the Commons" is a very particular example, originating in the scientific area of the Natural Resources and Environment Economy of one of these metaphors and their effects. Dealing with property rights lends itself to misunderstandings since important researchers in this area do not distinguish between "common property" and "nonproperty", although this definition is crucial for the design of the Natural Resources Management Policy. Along this paper, it is intended to rectify this confusion and to establish an adequate conceptualization.
Keywords: Tragedy of the commons, Property rights, Natural resources, Fisheries, Common property, Nonproperty

Cite this article:
Manuel Coelho, José António Filipe, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira. About commons and tragedies reviewing a concept. Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, 4(2)2018, 14-29.


REFERENCES

  1. ACHESON, J. (1981), "Anthropology of Fishing", Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 10, pp 275-316.
  2. ADASIAK, A. (1979), "Alaska's Experience with Limited Entry", Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol 36, Nº 7, pp 770-782.
  3. ALCHIAN, A. (1965), "Some Economics of Property Rights", Il Politico, Vol. 30, Nº 4, pp 816-829.
  4. ALCHIAN, A. and DEMSETZ, H. (1973), "The Property Rights Paradigm", Journal of Economic History, Vol 33, Nº 1, pp 16-27.
  5. ANDERSON, T. and HILL, P. (1990), "The Race for Property Rights", Journal of Law & Economics, Vol. 33, April, pp 177-197.
  6. AUGUSTO, F. (2010), “The Opportunity of the Commons, Presentation in Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment”, MIT Doctoral Program in “Sustainable Energy Systems”, ISEG/UTL.
  7. BERKES, F. (ed.) (1989), Common Property Resources, Ecology and Community – Based Sustainable Development, Belhaven Press, London.
  8. BERKES, F. and FARVAR, M. (1989), “Introduction and Overview” in BERKES, F (ed) (1989), Common Property Resources, Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development, Belhaven Press, London, pp 1-17.
  9. BROMLEY, D. (1985), “Resources and economic development: An institutionalist perspective”, Journal of Economic Issues, Nº 3, pp 779-796.
  10. BROMLEY, D. (1986), “Markets and Externalities”, in Bromley, D. (ed.), Natural Resource Economics - Policy Problems and Contemporary Analysis, Kluwer Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, pp 37-68.
  11. BROMLEY, D. (1991), “Testing for Common Versus Private Property: Comment”, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 21, Nº 1, pp 92-96.
  12. BUCK, S. (1989), “Multi-Jurisdictional Resources: Testing a Typology for Problem-Structuring”, in BERKES (ed), Common-Property Resources, Ecology and Community – Based Sustainable Development, Belhaven Press, London, pp 127-147.
  13. BERKES, F. & FARVAR, M. (1989), “Introduction and Overview”, in BERKES, F. (ed.), Common Property Resources, Ecology and Community- Based Development, Belhaven Press, London.
  14. CHEUNG, S. (1968), “Private Property Rights and Sharecropping”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 76, Nº 6, pp 1107-1122.
  15. CHRISTY, F. (1972), “Fisheries Management and the Law of the Sea”, in OCDE (1972), Economic Aspects of Fish Production, Paris, pp 4-39.
  16. CIRIACY - WANTRUP and BISHOP, R. (1975), “Common Property as a concept in natural resources policy”, Natural Resources Journal, Nº 15, pp 713-27.
  17. CIRIACY-WANTRUP, S. (1971), “The Economics of Environmental Policy”, Land Economics, Vol 47, pp 36-45.
  18. CLARK, C. (1990), Mathematical Bioeconomics, The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources”, 2nd edition, Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  19. COASE, R. (1960), “The Problem of Social Cost”, Journal of Law and Economics, III, pp 1-44.
  20. COELHO, M. (2003), “Sobre Comuns e Tragédias – Recursos Naturais e Direitos de Propriedade”, Proceedings do V Encontro de Economistas de Língua Portuguesa, Recife.
  21. COELHO, M. (1999), A Tragédia dos Comuns Revisitada. A Pesca do Bacalhau na Terra Nova: Consequências do Regime das 200 Milhas, ISEG/UTL, Lisboa.
  22. COELHO, M., FILIPE, J. & FERREIRA, M. (2009), “Tragedies on Natural Resources: A Commons and Anticommons Approach”, Working Paper, Departamento de Economia; ISEG/UTL, Nº21/2009/DE/SOCIUS.
  23. COELHO, M., FILIPE, J. & FERREIRA M. (2009), “Coastal Development and Bureaucracy: Aquaculture in Portugal - the possible emergence of an Anti-commons Tragedy”; Proceedings do 15º Congresso da APDR (Associação Portuguesa de Desenvolvimento Regional), Cidade da Praia, Cabo Verde.
  24. DALES, J. (1975), “Beyond the Marketplace”, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 8, Nº 4, pp 483-503.
  25. DASGUPTA, P. e HEAL, G. (1979), Economic Theory and Exhaustible Resources, Cambridge University Press.
  26. DAVIDSE, W. (1995), "Fishery Regulations and the creation of property rights, the Dutch Case", mimeo.
  27. DEMSETZ, H. (1967), “Toward a Theory of Property Rights”, American Economic Review, Vol. 57, pp 347-359.
  28. FAO (1983), Case studies and working paper’s presented at the Expert Consultation on Strategies for fisheries development, FAO Fisheries Report 298, Suppl. Rome/FAO.
  29. FILIPE, J., COELHO. M. & FERREIRA, M. (2007), O Drama dos Recursos Comuns, Ed. Sílabo, Lisboa.
  30. FURUBOTN, E. e PEJOVICH, S. (1972), "Property Rights and Economic Theory: A Survey of Recent Literature", Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 10, Nº 4, pp 1137-1162.
  31. GIBBS, J. e BROMLEY, D. (1989), "Institutional Arrangements for Management of Rural Resources: Common-Property Regimes" in BERKES (ed), Common Property Resources, Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development, Belhaven Press, pp 33-54.
  32. GOODLAND, R., LEDEC, G. e WEBB, M. (1989), "Meeting Environmental Concerns Caused by Common Property, Mismanagement in Economic Development Projects”, in
  33. BERKES, F. (ed), Common Property Resources, Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development, Belhaven Press, London, pp 148-164.
  34. GORDON, H. S. (1954), "The Economic Theory of a Common Property Resource: The Fishery", Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 62, pp 124-142.
  35. GRIMA, A. and BERKES, F. (1989), "Natural Resources: Access, Rights-to-use and Management" in BERKES (ed), Common Property Resources, Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development, Belhaven Press, London, pp 33-54.
  36. HARDIN, G. (1968), "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, Vol.162, pp 1243.
  37. McCLOSKEY, D. (1983), “The Rhetoric of Economics”, Journal of Economic Literature”, Vol. XXI, pp. 481-517.
  38. MILLER, D. (1989), "The Evolution of Mexico's Spiny Lobster Fishery", in BERKES (ed), Common-Property Resources, Ecology and Community - Based Sustainable Development, Belhaven Press, pp 185-198.
  39. NOAA (1985), Fishery Management - Lessons from other Resource Management Areas, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC.
  40. OSTROM, E. (1990), Governing the Commons. The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge University Press.
  41. OSTROM, E. and GARDNER, R. (1993), "Coping with Asymmetries in the Commons: Self-Governing Irrigation Systems Can Work", Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 7, Nº 4, pp 93-112.
  42. PANAYOTOU, J. (1984), “Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries”, in FAO (1984) Fisheries Report Nº 289, Supplement 2, pp 153-160.
  43. PEARSE, P. (1972), "Rationalization of Canada's West Coast Salmon Fishery: An Economic Evaluation", in OCDE (1972), Economic Aspects of Fish Production, Paris, pp 172-202.
  44. PEARSE, P. (ed) (1979), "Symposium on Policies for Economic Rationalization of Commercial Fisheries", Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 36, pp 711-866.
  45. RANDALL, A. (1983), "The Problem of Market Failure", Natural Resource Journal, 23, pp 131-148.
  46. REGIER, H, MASON, R. and BERKES, F. (1989), "Reforming the use of Natural Resources", in Berkes (ed.) (1989), Common Property Resources, Ecology and Community Based Sustainable Development, Belhaven Press, London
  47. REGIER, H. and GRIMA, A. (1985), "Fishery resource allocation: an exploratory essay", Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 42, pp 845-59.
  48. RETTIG, R. and GINTER, J. (eds.) (1978), Limited Entry as a Fishery Management Tool, Washington Sea Grant Publications, University of Washington Press.
  49. RIBEIRO, M. (1992), A Zona Económica Exclusiva, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa / Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas.
  50. ROUMASSET, J. (1993), "Constitutional Management of Free Riders and Common Property Resources", in Public and International Economics, St. Martin's Press, New York.
  51. ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (2009), Scientific Background on the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009; “Economic Governance”, compiled by the Economic Sciences Prize Committee.
  52. RUDDLE, K. and PANAYOTO, T. (1989), "The Organization of Traditional Inshore Fishery Management Systems in the Pacific", and "Comments", in NEHER, P., ARNASON,
  53. R. and MOLLETT, N. (eds.) (1989), Rights Based Fishing, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  54. SCHAEFER, M. (1957), “Some Considerations of Population Dynamics and Economics in Relation to the Management of the Commercial Marine fisheries”, Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 14, pp 669-681.
  55. SCHLAGER, E. and OSTROM, E. (1992), "Property-Rights Regimes and Natural Resources: A Conceptual Analysis", Land Economics, Vol. 68, Nº 3, pp 249-262.
  56. SCOTT, A. (1955), "The Fishery: The Objectives of Sole Ownership", Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 63, pp 116-124.
  57. SCOTT, A. (1983), "Property rights and property wrongs", Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 16, Nº 4, pp 555-573.
  58. SCOTT, A. (1986), "Catch Quotas and Shares in the Fishstock or Property Rights", in MILES, PEALY e STOKES (eds.), Natural Resource Economics and Policy Applications, pp 61-96.
  59. SCOTT, A. (1989), "Conceptual Origins of Rights Based Fishing", in NEHER, ARNASON and MOLLETT (eds.), Rights Based Fishing, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  60. SEABRIGHT, P. (1993), "Managing Local Commons: Theoretical Issues in Incentive Design", Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 7, Nº 4, pp 113-134.
  61. TERREBONNE, R. (1995), "Property Rights and Entrepreneurial Income in Commercial Fisheries", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol.28, Nº 1, pp 68-82.
  62. WILSON, J. (1982), "The Economical Management of Multispecies Fisheries", Land Economics, Vol. 58, Nº 4, pp 417-434.