Volume 2, Number 5 / October issue 2016
Nna Prince Joe, Nduudee N. Joy
Comparative studies of the phytochemical screening and proximate potentials of the methanolic extracts of cymbopogon attractus and ocimum gratissimum leaves grown in Nigeria

The phytochemical composition and proximate potentials of cymbopogon attractus and ocimum gratissimum were investigated. The proximate analysis in % showed that ocimum gratissimum had the highest amount of moisture content, ash content, crude protein and carbohydrate of 81.62, 3.03, 5.58 and 8.87 respectively while cymbopogon attractus had the lowest amount of moisture content, ash content, crude protein and carbohydrate with 76.98, 1.69, 2.87 and 8.27 respectively. Though cymbopogon attractus recorded 1.38 and 8.84 for both ether extract and crude fibre while ocimum gratissimum had 0.79 and 3.80 for ether extract and crude fibre respectively. The phytochemical analysis of the plants showed that the two plants contained alkaloid, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phlobatanin and anthraquinone. While, cardiac glycoside, triterpenoids and reducing compound were found in cymbogopon attractus but absent in ocimum gratssimum. However, the study also revealed that steroid was present in ocimum gratissimum but absent in cymbopogon attractus while protein was not found in both plants. The presence of these phytochemicals account for their medicinal potential as well as their utility as prophylactics. This study showed the presence of steroids in ocimum gratissimum which accounts for its irritative ability in the mouth when rawly eaten while the presence of cardiac glycoside and triterpenoids in cymbopogon attractus are responsible for its sour taste.
Keywords: Proximate, plant extract, phytochemicals, cymbopogon attractus and ocimum gratissimum

Cite this article:
Nna Prince Joe, Nduudee N. Joy. Comparative studies of the phytochemical screening and proximate potentials of the methanolic extracts of cymbopogon attractus and ocimum gratissimum leaves grown in Nigeria. Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, 2(5)2016, 27-33.


  1. A.O.A.C. (2005). Official methods of analysis. 15th association of official analysis chemist Washington D.C. pp. 774-784.
  2. Akah, P.A., John-Africa, L., Nworu, C.S. (2007). Gastro-protective properties of the leaf extracts of ocimum gratissimum L. against experimental ulcers in rat. International Journal of Pharmacology 3(6), 461-467.
  3. Ayisi, N.K. & Nyadedzor, C. (2003). Comparative in vitro effects of AZT and extracts of ocimum gratissimum, ficus polita, clausena anisata, alchornea cordifolia and elaeophorbia drupifer against HIV- 1 and HIV -2 infections. Antiviral research, 1766, 1-9.
  4. Bell, E. (2008). Vitamin D3 promotes immune function on the skill. http//
  5. Brenan, P.M. (1996). Flora of tropical East Africa. East Africa literature bureau, Nairobi.
  6. Burkill, I.H. (1997). The useful plants of west tropical Africa. vol. 4 families M-R. Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, 605.
  7. Edeoga, H.O., Olawu, D.E., Mbaebi, B.O. (2005). Phytochemical constiuents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(7), 685-688.
  8. Fagbohum, E.D., Lawal, O.U. and Ore, M.E. (2012). The proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of ocimum gratissimum L., melanthera scandens A, and Leea GUINEENSIS L. and their medicinal value. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology 3(1). 15-22.
  9. Figueirinha, A., Paranhas, A., Penez-Alonso, J.J., Santos, C., & Betisa, M.T. (2008). Cymbopogon atratus leaves, characterization of flavonoids by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS and an approach to their potential as a source of bioactive polyphenols. Food Chem. 110:718-728.
  10. Hussien, J., Urgessa, K., Regassa, F. Jemal, A., Abajebel, S. Hussien, N. (2011). Antinepmentic effects of the essential oil extracts of selected medicinal plants against haemonchus contortus. International Journal of Agric Research 6: 290-298.
  11. Iniaghe, O.M., Malomo, S.O. and Adebayo, J.D. (2009). Proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of leaves and some acalypha species. Journal of Nutrition Vol. 8(3): 256-258.
  12. Ishida, H. Suzuno, H., Sugiyama, N., Innami, S. & Todokoro, T. (2008). National evaluation of chemical component of leaves stalks and stem of sweet potatoes. Ipomea batata poir. Food chemistry. Vol. 68: 359-367.
  13. Jack, I.R. and Nna, P.J. (2015). Comparative studies of the phytochemical analysis of the methanolic occidentalis and gongronema latifolium. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Science (3).
  14. Joshua, A.A., Usunobun, U., Lanve, A.B., Amenze, O. & Anyanwu, G. (2012). Comparative studies on the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extracts of lemon grass leaves and stems. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 4(4): 145-148.
  15. Oduchukwu, U., Omeje, F.I., Uloma, S.I., Oseiwe, F.D. (2015). Phytochemical analysis of veronia amygdalina and ocimum gratissimum extracts and their anti-bacterial activity on some drug resistant bacteria. American Journal of Research Communication 3(5): 225-235.
  16. Offiah, V.N and Chikwendu, U.A. (1999). Anti diarrhoeal effects of ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in experimental animals. Journal of etnopharmalology 68(1-3), 327-330.
  17. Okwu, D.E. & Omodamiro, D.O. (2005). Effect of hexane extract and phytochemical content of xylopia aethiopica and ocimum gratissimum on uterus of guinea pig. Biol. Res. 3(2): 40-44.
  18. Okwu, D.E. (2001). Evaluation of the chemical composition of indigenous species and flavouring agents. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 7(3), 455-459.
  19. Okwu, D.E. (2003). The potentials of ocimum gratissimum penrgularia extensa and tetrapleura tetraptera as spice and flavouring agents. Nig. Africa J. 34: 143-148.
  20. Okwu, D.E. (2004). Phytochemicals and vitamin content of indigenous spices of South Eastern Nigeria. J. sustain. Agric. Environ. 6(1) 30-37.
  21. Onajobi, F.D. (1986). Smooth muscle contracting lipidsoluble principles in chromatographic fractions of ocimum gratissimum. Journal of ethnopharmacology 18(1), 3-11.
  22. Pessoa, L.M., Morais, S.M., Bevilague, C.M.L. & Luciano, J.H.S. (20020. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of ocimum grastissimum linn and evgenol against haemonclus contortus. Veterinary parasitol, 109 (1-2).
  23. Sapna, D.D., Dhruv, G.D. & Harmeet, K. (2009). Saponins and their biological activities. Pharma Times 41(3): 13-16.
  24. Scalbert, A. (1991). Antimicrobial proeprties of tannis. Phytochemistry. Vol. 30: 3875-3882.
  25. Stehmann, J.R. & Brandaw, M.G.L. (1995). Medicinal plants of lauvas Novas. Fitoterapia, 56:515-520.